Solar Decomposition of CO2 & H2o
Redox * Electrolysis * Thermolysis
Insights.. In Sight?
A Fresnel Lens Tunnel (FLT) coupled with A Enveloped Linear Fresnel Reflector (ELFR) is the heart of this technology.
Fresnel lenses in the FLT form a 3 dimensional identity and are held along the focal circumference with the required degree of radial movement to vary the focal distance for selective & temperature control.
The ELFR is again a 3 dimensional identity designed using reflectors placed at strategic positions. Each Lens in the FLT, that does not receive Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI), is provided the required DNI by the corresponding reflector forming the ELFR.
The ELFR in unison with the FLT, ‘Track the Sun’, leading to convergence of foci from multiple lenses to a single point.
For working of the apparatus, the ELFR in unison with the FLT has to ‘Track the Sun’.
What does this exactly mean ?
The sun races across the sky at the rate of 240 seconds per degree. The earth is also revolving about the sun, once in about 365 Days! Tracking for both these movements calls for a 2 Axis Tracking System
Now for the apparatus to work, the lenses need to keep on receiving Direct Normal Irradiance(DNI) , meaning the reflectors providing this DNI to the respective lenses need to be held in position in respect to the lenses and moved along with the sun in an appropriate angle and speed.
The accompanying video helps in envisaging this 2 axis tracking system of the apparatus.
Thermo-Chemical Reduction-Oxidation (Redox Cycles) of Metal Oxides is being Researched to split H2O and CO2 for the production of Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas. Some Metal Oxides like CeO2 have been envisaged to operate way above 1500° C. At 1500° C the solar to fuel efficiency is found to be about 1.3%. At a temperature of about 2200° C the envisaged efficiency is about 68 % !
That’s where our apparatus stands out!
Challenges Envisaged by the Scientific Community and Addressed by our Design include the following
Generally speaking, during electrolysis, a amount of electrical energy must be added that equals the change in Gibbs free energy of the reaction,i.e. Splitting H2O or CO2.
High temperature electrolysis is more efficient and economic than traditional room- temperature electrolysis because some of this Gibbs free energy is supplied as heat, which is cheaper than electricity. Here we envisage providing almost all this energy requirement by solar irradiation
Nearly eliminating the requirement to provide for the Gibbs free energy by way of Providing Ionized steam on the surface of the Cathode may be the USP of the FLT Technology . Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells are suitable candidates for such High Temperature Electrolysis.
Breaking of chemical compounds under influence of heat is a simple definition of Thermolysis.
At about 2500° C , and partial pressures of 0.1 Atmospheres, electrical input is theoretically unnecessary to split water, because almost 25 % of the water breaks down to OH radicals. At about 3000° C almost 50% of the water breaks down to radicals and ions of OH, H2, O2, H and O
As the temperature cools off these radicals and ions may quench and recombine to produce water and H2O2, H2 and O2. Research is being carried out to separate these radicals and ions at high temperatures. Magneto Hydro Dynamic Electrolysis, enabled by Lorentz Force Laws is also being perused to produce H2O2 and H2.